Sovereign vol. 2 (2016)

Sovereign vol. 2 (2016)
Nikolai II and the Supreme Commander: Fighting on Two Fronts by Margarita Nelipa -Despite its magnitude, historians rarely evaluated the one imperial decision that shaped the course of World War One. When Russia entered the War in 1914, it fought: For Faith, Tsar and the Fatherland. On that day there appeared to be national harmony. The ordinary soldier went to battle as a patriot, loyal to the sovereign. By mid-August 1915, fatalities were immense, soldiers had either retreated en masse or gave themselves up as prisoners in large numbers, disillusioned with a war that made no sense for them. Owing to those catastrophic events, the sovereign felt duty-bound to defend his homeland and reign. To do so, he decided to firstly dismiss Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich as the Supreme Commander of the military forces and secondly, to accept direct responsibility to bring Russia back into a favorable military footing by stepping into that role himself. However, many members of the Council of Ministers, as shown by never-before-revealed Council transcripts, acted against the emperor’s decision, dismayed by his lack of consultation. The decision polarized members of the imperial family who also supported the Grand Duke’s wartime role. Nikolai II’s new role also caused the first shift against the sovereign among several Generals. Why that common dissension came about among the elite of the nation, is explained with the use of seldom accessed Russian language material. Notwithstanding the grievances, Nikolai II remained steadfast in his decision to take command of the armed forces. In the end, despite achieving some success on the battlefield, the Emperor lost the war on the home front. "Dearest Grandmama" The Relationship Between Nicholas II and Queen Victoria by Coryne Hall - Royal historian and author Coryne Hall offers the first of a 4 part series on Emperor Nicholas II's relationship with British monarchs. Between 1894 and 1901 Emperor Nicholas II and Queen Victoria ruled two of the world's mightiest empires. They were also related, as Nicholas had married the Queen's granddaughter, Princess Alix of Hesse. So how did their personal relationship develope? Part I examines this interesting relationship between the two monarchs. The Cult of Nicholas II by Matthew Dal Santo - Russians' attitudes towards "Bloody Nicholas" have come a long way in the past one hundred years. The author explores the growing and more sympathetic modern-day "cult" of Nicholas II in contemporary Russian and Western society. This issue also includes 4 first English translation articles by the following Russian experts: Vladimir Fyodorovich Dzhunkovsky. Witness to the Coronation of Russia's Last Emperor by Zenaida I. Peregudova and I.M. Pushkareva Translated from Russian by Irene W. Galaktionova and Neil P. Mayhew - Vladimir Fyodorovich Dzhunkovsky is remembered as a prominent statesman and military leader of the Russian Empire. He was a very remarkable person in that he was so unlike other members of Nicholas II's governmental pantheon. The authors have written a biography of the man who served as adjutant of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich and held posts of the Governor of Moscow Guberniya, the Governor-General of Moscow, the Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander Special Corps of the Gendarmes. The first English translation of this article appears in this issue of Sovereign. The 1896 Coronation Celebrations in Moscow by Vladimir Fyodorovich Dzhunkovsky Translated from Russian by Irene W. Galaktionova and Neil P. Mayhew - This excerpt from Vladimir Dzhunkovsky's memoirs tells about one of the most picturesque and memorable events in the history of Moscow: his personal eyewitness account of the coronation of Emperor Nicholas II May 1896. He goes on to describe the events of the Khodynka tragedy, offering one of the most accurate accounts to date. The first English translation of excerpts from Dzunkovsky's memoirs appear in this issue of Sovereign. The Unknown Emperor. An Interview with Archpriest Valentin Asmus by Semyon Sokolov and Ludmila Bonyushkina Translated from Russian by Irene W. Galaktionova and Neil P. Mayhew - The day after the canonization of Emperor Nicholas II by the Moscow Patriarchate in 2000, two Russian journalists managed to gain access to one of the most recognized experts in the history of the Russian monarchy: the Moscow Spiritual Academy lecturer Archpriest Valentin Asmus. Father Valentin speaks in length about the character of St. Tsar Nicholas II, and believes that the conventional views of the life and personality of Nicholas II often couldn't be further from the truth. The first English translation of this interview appears in this issue of Sovereign. The Investigation into the Deaths of the Russian Royal Family and Persons of Their Entourage by Archpriest Oleg Mitrov Translated from Russian by Irene W. Galaktionova - The questions raised by the murders of the Russian Royal family, including the discovery of their remains in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg, as well as the recognition or non-recognition of their authenticity, have been unsettling our society for the last 25 years. Recently, many people have been looking to the Russian Orthodox Church for its verdict on the matter. But expressing an objective view requires the Church to conduct a thorough examination of the historical records as well as the investigation materials and the results of scientific enquiries. In this first English language translation, Mitrov addresses the ROC's questions and concerns regarding the Ekaterinburg remains. Among them are the previous forensic studies of the remains carried out in the 1990s, Sergeev and later Sokolov's investigation in the 1920s, disturbing issues regarding the excavations conducted in 1979, 1991 and 2007, and much more. Archpriest Oleg Mitrov is a member of the Synodal Commission for the Canonization of Saints, and is also currently engaged in the study of the issues surrounding the murders of Russia’s last royal family. Note: This article was originally published in Royal Russia No. 9. An illustrated edition of this articles is presented in this issue of Sovereign for the benefit of those readers who do not subscribe to both periodicals. Ingenaaid, 145 pagina's, Engelstalig.

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